AbstractThis study examined the determinants of COVID-19-related safety behavior (SB) on construction sites in Nigeria. Specifically, the effect of perceived COVID-19 safety risk (PCSR) on SB, the interacting (moderating) effect of firm size (FS) on the relationship between PCSR and SB, and the mechanism through which PCSR leads to SB through the firm’s safety climate (SC) were examined for a sample of 312 construction site workers in Nigeria. The partial least squares structural equation modeling technique was used to analyze the data. The results indicate that PCSR has no significant effect on SB. SC fully mediated the effect of PCSR on SB, while FS moderated the relationship between PCSR and SB, with a stronger effect observed for small firms. It is recommended that a deliberate effort should be made to inculcate a change in the behavior of workers in small firms because of the inverse relationship between PCSR and SB in such firms. This study’s findings contribute to the existing body of knowledge by equipping construction project managers and engineers with much-required information to create a good SC aimed at fostering an acceptable level of SB among construction workers in order to reduce the spread of COVID-19 on construction sites. The study also advances the academic literature on health and safety performance in the construction sector, particularly during pandemics such as COVID-19.

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