AbstractTo solve the problems of low flame retardant efficiency and weak low-temperature performance of asphalt modified by conventional flame retardants (CFR), in this study, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and CFR were used to prepare nanocomposite flame retardants (NCFR) to modify asphalt. A fluorescence microscope (FM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS) were used to characterize the microstructure of NCFR-modified asphalt. An oxygen index meter, Cleveland open cup, and cone calorimeter were used to test the flame retardant properties of the asphalt. A dynamic shear rheometer, bending beam rheometer, and force ductility tester were used to test the rheological properties of asphalt. At the same time, flame retardant–modified asphalt mixtures were prepared to verify the flame retardancy and road performance of the flame retardant–modified asphalt. The research results showed that the asphalt modified with 8% CFR and 1% HNTs (MA/CFR/1% HNTs) showed better dispersibility. The increase of limiting oxygen index and self-ignition temperature and the decrease of heat release rate and smoke production rate of MA/CFR/1% HNTs indicated that it has good flame retardancy. At 64°C, compared with modified asphalt (MA), the rutting factor of MA/CFR/1% HNTs increased by 88.17%, the creep recovery increased, and the irreversible creep decreased, indicating that its high-temperature performance improved significantly. At −18°C, compared with that of MA/CFR, the low-temperature creep stiffness of MA/CFR/1% HNTs decreased by 36 MPa and the creep rate of MA/CFR/1% HNTs increased by 0.034, indicating that only 1% HNTs can improve the effect of degraded CFR on the low-temperature performance of MA. Simultaneously, MA/CFR and MA/CFR/1% HNTs can improve the high-temperature performance and water stability of asphalt mixtures. Adding 1% HNTs to a MA/CFR-modified asphalt mixture can improve the low-temperature performance of the asphalt mixture to the level of the low-temperature performance of the modified asphalt mixture. In summary, the modification of asphalt with 1% HNTs and 8% CFR can effectively improve the flame retardant efficiency and significantly improve the road performance of asphalt.