AbstractManholes in combined sewers may become surcharged during storm events, resulting in complex mixing conditions. Although manhole hydrodynamics are reasonably well understood, predicting mixing across a surcharged manhole remains a challenge. An analytical compartmental mixing model for manholes, based on jet theory, has been further developed and applied to generate cumulative residence time distributions (CRTDs), which describe mixing. The modeled CRTDs were compared with the experimentally derived CRTDs of over 850 manhole configurations to evaluate how well the new compartmental model represents physical processes. The model underpredicts short-circuiting in manholes with manhole diameter to pipe diameter ratios greater than 4.4 and consequently overestimates mixing. Otherwise, the modeled CRTDs show good agreement with the experimental CRTDs. The new compartmental model represents key manhole hydrodynamics that are not represented in current software modeling packages, which assume manholes are instantaneously well-mixed. The compartmental model provides good predictions of the experimental downstream concentration profiles, although with reduced peak concentrations in those manhole configurations where short-circuiting is not well-predicted. Despite this, the compartmental model still predicts concentrations downstream of a manhole in closer agreement with the recorded data than the complete instantaneously well-mixed assumption. As an analytical model requiring no inputs other than manhole geometry, the new compartmental model applies to a wide range of manhole configurations, is robust, and is useful for predicting manhole mixing in practical applications.

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