AbstractGraphene has been proven to have a wide range of applications in transportation intelligence and green infrastructure development. In view of a series of distresses in the use of epoxy asphalt, we used graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) to modify epoxy asphalt to further increase the strength and toughness of epoxy asphalt. The one-pot method was employed to form GNPs modified epoxy asphalt, and GNPs were dispersed by high-speed shear mixing emulsifier. Then we conducted macro-micro comparison tests between epoxy asphalt and GNPs modified epoxy asphalt. Macroscopic testing, including tensile testing with epoxy asphalt dumbbell specimens, showed that adding GNPs into epoxy asphalt can increase the fracture toughness more than three times. According to the fluorescence microscopy in microanalysis, the main reason for the improvement of tensile properties is that GNPs can build a bridge between epoxy resin and asphalt, which makes the matrix asphalt distribute in epoxy resin continuously with smaller particle size and forming a denser network structure. This dense network can enhance epoxy asphalt’s cohesion and flexibility and improve the tensile properties of the epoxy asphalt modified by GNPs. Thermal analysis showed that adding GNPs can improve the high- and low-temperature performance of epoxy asphalt. Infrared spectroscopy revealed the position of functional groups in epoxy asphalt. This research can provide new material for long-life pavement, which promises to extend the highway infrastructure’s service life.