AbstractThe psychological contract of safety (PCS) can be understood as the beliefs of employees regarding the reciprocal safety obligations between themselves and their supervisors. Although research has established that PCS is critical to safety management in construction sites, there is limited evidence on how PCS affects construction workers’ safety behavior, including compliance and participation. Building upon the psychological contract theory and social exchange theory, this study investigates the mediating mechanisms that link PCS to safety compliance and safety participation, that is, felt safety responsibility and safety-specific trust in supervisors. Overall, 389 valid data points from multiple sources comprising construction workers and their supervisors from 15 construction projects were collected. The results reveal that felt safety responsibility and safety-specific trust in supervisors partially mediate the relationships between PCS and both safety compliance and safety participation. The findings extend the safety behavior literature by clarifying the two distinct PCS processes toward safety behavior. Interventions should target improving employees’ perception of PCS to support their engagement in safety behavior.