AbstractThe rapid recognition of rainstorm-induced emergencies (e.g., building and road inundation, facility damage, and trapped citizens) is vital to timely disaster response. One big challenge that limits the performance of emergency recognition is the data imbalance between different emergency domains. The present study aims to develop an effective cross-domain transfer learning framework for rainstorm-induced emergency recognition based on the text reports provided by citizens. The critical component of the framework is the use of joint distribution adaption (JDA) analysis embedded in a discriminative feature mapping procedure, which transfers rich knowledge learned from large-scale datasets to the learning task from small emergence data. Considering the feature incompleteness that is caused by short text length, a basic probability assignment function is constructed and applied to extract important spatial features for rainstorm emergency recognition, with an improved marginal Fisher analysis being adopted to optimize cross-domain text feature representation. The proposed scheme is validated using the empirical data of ten emergency classes from Wuhan City, China. Our experimental results show that the proposed method could significantly address data imbalance and thus help achieve high recognition performance through domain knowledge complementation. Meanwhile, the use of various spatial features is proved to be effective in tackling missing features. This scheme can be further developed into smart systems for rainstorm disaster response with reasonable performance and imbalanced sample sizes.