Freiwald, A. Reef-forming cold-water corals. In Ocean Margin Systems (eds. Wefer, G. et al.) 365–385 (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2002).
Van Oevelen, D. et al. The cold-water coral community as hotspot of carbon cycling on continental margins: a food-web analysis from Rockall Bank (northeast Atlantic). Limnology and Oceanography 54, 1829–1844 (2009).
Cathalot, C. et al. Cold-water coral reefs and adjacent sponge grounds: hotspots of benthic respiration and organic carbon cycling in the deep sea. Frontiers in Marine Science 2, 1–12 (2015).
Thiem, Ø., Ravagnan, E., Fosså, J. H. & Berntsen, J. Food supply mechanisms for cold-water corals along a continental shelf edge. Journal of Marine Systems 60, 207–219 (2006).
Duineveld, G. C. A., Lavaleye, M. S. S., Bergman, M. J. N., De Stigter, H. & Mienis, F. Trophic structure of a cold-water coral mound community (Rockall Bank, NE Atlantic) in relation to the near-bottom particle supply and current regime. Bulletin of Marine Science 81, 449–467 (2007).
Soetaert, K., Mohn, C., Rengstorf, A., Grehan, A. & Van Oevelen, D. Ecosystem engineering creates a direct nutritional link between 600-m deep cold-water coral mounds and surface productivity. Scientific Reports 6, 35057 (2016).
Duineveld, G. C. A., Lavaleye, M. S. S. & Berghuis, E. M. Particle flux and food supply to a seamount cold-water coral community (Galicia Bank, NW Spain). Marine Ecology Progress Series 277, 13–23 (2004).
Hansell, D. A. & Carlson, C. A. Deep-ocean gradients in the concentration of dissolved organic carbon. Nature 395, 263–266 (1998).
Wild, C. et al. Organic matter release by cold water corals and its implication for fauna-microbe interaction. Marine Ecology Progress Series 372, 67–75 (2008).
Wild, C. et al. Microbial degradation of cold-water coral-derived organic matter: potential implication for organic C cycling in the water column above Tisler Reef. Aquatic Biology 7, 71–80 (2009).
Van Bleijswijk, J. D. L. et al. Microbial assemblages on a cold-water coral mound at the SE Rockall Bank (NE Atlantic): interactions with hydrography and topography. Biogeosciences 12, 4483–4496 (2015).
Jensen, S., Bourne, D. G., Hovland, M. & Colin Murrell, J. High diversity of microplankton surrounds deep-water coral reef in the Norwegian Sea. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 82, 75–89 (2012).
Roberts, J. M. et al. Monitoring environmental variability around cold-water coral reefs: the use of a benthic photolander and the potential of seafloor observatories. in Cold-Water Corals and Ecosystems (eds. Freiwald, A. & Roberts, J. M.) 483–502, https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-27673-4_24 (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2005).
Henry, L.-A., Davies, A. J. & Roberts, J. M. Beta diversity of cold-water coral reef communities off western Scotland. Coral Reefs 29, 427–436 (2010).
Purser, A. et al. Local variation in the distribution of benthic megafauna species associated with cold-water coral reefs on the Norwegian margin. Continental Shelf Research 54, 37–51 (2013).
Riisgård, H. U. & Larsen, P. S. Filter-feeding in marine macro-invertebrates: pump characteristics, modelling and energy cost. Biological Reviews 70, 67–106 (1995).
Gili, J.-M. & Coma, R. Benthic suspension feeders: their paramount role in littoral marine food webs. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 13, 316–321 (1998).
Larsen, P. S. & Riisgård, H. U. The sponge pump. Journal of Theoretical Biology 168, 53–63 (1994).
Maldonado, M., Ribes, M. & Van Duyl, F. C. Nutrient fluxes through sponges: Biology, budgets, and ecological implications. in Advances in marine biology vol. 62 113–182 (Academic Press, 2012).
De Goeij, J. M., Lesser, M. P. & Pawlik, J. R. Nutrient fluxes and ecological functions of coral reef sponges. In a changing ocean in Climate change, ocean acidification and sponges: impacts across multiple levels of organization (eds. Carballo, J. L. & Bell, J. J.) 373–410, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59008-0_8 (Springer, 2017).
Reiswig, H. M. Partial carbon and energy budgets of the bacteriosponge Verohgia fistularis (Porifera: Demospongiae) in Barbados. Marine Ecology 2, 273–293 (1981).
Hentschel, U., Usher, K. M. & Taylor, M. W. Marine sponges as microbial fermenters. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 55, 167–177 (2006).
Yahel, G., Sharp, J. H., Marie, D., Häse, C. & Genin, A. In situ feeding and element removal in the symbiont-bearing sponge Theonella swinhoei: bulk DOC is the major source for carbon. Limnology and Oceanography 48, 141–149 (2003).
Leys, S. P., Kahn, A. S., Fang, J. K. H., Kutti, T. & Bannister, R. J. Phagocytosis of microbial symbionts balances the carbon and nitrogen budget for the deep‐water boreal sponge Geodia barretti. Limnology and Oceanography 63, 187–202 (2018).
Pawlik, J. R. & McMurray, S. E. The emerging ecological and biogeochemical importance of sponges on coral reefs. Ann Rev Mar Sci, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010419-010807 (2019).
Ward, J. E. & Shumway, S. E. Separating the grain from the chaff: particle selection in suspension- and deposit-feeding bivalves. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 300, 83–130 (2004).
Riisgård, H. U., Larsen, P. S. & Nielsen, N. F. Particle capture in the mussel Mytilus edulis: the role of latero-frontal cirri. Mar. Biol. 127, 259–266 (1996).
Ward, J. E., Sanford, L. P., Newell, R. I. E. & MacDonald, B. A. A new explanation of particle capture in suspension-feeding bivalve molluscs. Limnology and Oceanography 43, 741–752 (1998).
Sorokin, Y. I. & Wyshkwarzev, D. I. Feeding on dissolved organic matter by some marine animals. Aquaculture 2, 141–148 (1973).
Amouroux, J. M. Comparative study of the carbon cycle in Venus verrucosa fed on bacteria and phytoplankton. Mar. Biol. 90, 237–241 (1986).
Roditi, H. A., Fisher, N. S. & Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A. Uptake of dissolved organic carbon and trace elements by zebra mussels. Nature 407, 78–80 (2000).
Fiala-Médioni, A., Alayse, A. M. & Cahet, G. Evidence of in situ uptake and incorporation of bicarbonate and amino acids by a hydrothermal vent mussel. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 96, 191–198 (1986).
Crossland, C. J., Hatcher, B. G. & Smith, S. V. Role of coral reefs in global ocean production. Coral Reefs 10, 55–64 (1991).
De Goeij, J. M. et al. Surviving in a marine desert: the sponge loop retains resources within coral reefs. Science 342, 108–110 (2013).
De Goeij, J. M. et al. Cell kinetics of the marine sponge Halisarca caerulea reveal rapid cell turnover and shedding. The Journal of Experimental Biology 212, 3892–3900 (2009).
Rix, L. et al. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems. Scientific Reports 6, 1–11 (2016).
Alexander, B. E. et al. Cell turnover and detritus production in marine sponges from tropical and temperate benthic ecosystems. PLoS ONE 9, e109486 (2014).
Alexander, B. E. et al. Cell kinetics during regeneration in the sponge Halisarca caerulea: how local is the response to tissue damage? PeerJ 3, e820 (2015).
Tsuchiya, M. Biodeposit production by the mussel Mytilus edulis L. on rocky shores. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 47, 203–222 (1980).
Beninger, P. G., Ward, J. E., MacDonald, B. A. & Thompson, R. J. Gill function and particle transport in Placopecten magellanicus (Mollusca: Bivalvia) as revealed using video endoscopy. Marine Biology 114, 281–288 (1992).
Ward, E. J. & MacDonald, B. A. Pre-ingestive feeding behaviors of two sub-tropical bivalves (Pinctada imbricata and Arca zebra): responses to an acute increase in suspended sediment concentration. Bulletin of Marine Science 59, 417–432 (1996).
Wotton, R. S. & Malmqvist, B. Feces in Aquatic Ecosystems. BioScience 51, 537–544 (2001).
Rothans, T. C. & Miller, A. C. A link between biologically imported particulate organic nutrients and the detritus food web in reef communities. Mar. Biol. 110, 145–150 (1991).
De Goeij, J. M. et al. Major bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal by encrusting coral reef cavity sponges. Marine Ecology Progress Series 357, 139–151 (2008).
Siebers, D. Bacterial-invertebrate interactions in uptake of dissolved organic matter. Integr Comp Biol 22, 723–733 (1982).
Ribes, M. et al. Functional convergence of microbes associated with temperate marine sponges. Environmental Microbiology 14, 1224–1239 (2012).
De Goeij, J. M., Moodley, L., Houtekamer, M., Carballeira, N. M. & Van Duyl, F. C. Tracing 13C-enriched dissolved and particulate organic carbon in the bacteria-containing coral reef sponge Halisarca caerulea: evidence for DOM-feeding. Limnology and Oceanography 53, 1376–1386 (2008).
Rix, L. et al. Reef sponges facilitate the transfer of coral-derived organic matter to their associated fauna via the sponge loop. Marine Ecology Progress Series 589, 85–96 (2018).
Wright, S. H. & Manahan, D. T. Integumental nutrient uptake by aquatic organisms. Annual Review of Physiology 51, 585–600 (1989).
Rix, L. et al. Differential recycling of coral and algal dissolved organic matter via the sponge loop. Functional Ecology 31, 778–789 (2017).
Schöttner, S. et al. Relationships between host phylogeny, host type and bacterial community diversity in cold-water coral reef sponges. PLoS ONE 8, e55505 (2013).
Jensen, S., Duperron, S., Birkeland, N.-K. & Hovland, M. Intracellular Oceanospirillales bacteria inhabit gills of Acesta bivalves. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 74, 523–533 (2010).
Jørgensen, C. B. August Pütter, August Krogh, and modern ideas on the use of dissolved organic matter in aquatic environments. Biological Reviews 51, 291–328 (1976).
Wooster, M. K., McMurray, S. E., Pawlik, J. R., Morán, X. A. G. & Berumen, M. L. Feeding and respiration by giant barrel sponges across a gradient of food abundance in the Red Sea. Limnology and Oceanography 64, 1790–1801 (2019).
Reiswig, H. M. Water transport, respiration and energetics of three tropical marine sponges. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 14, 231–249 (1974).
Pile, A. J., Patterson, M. R. & Witman, J. D. In situ grazing on plankton <10 µm by the boreal sponge Mycale lingua. Marine Ecology Progress Series 141, 95–102 (1996).
Järnegren, J. & Altin, D. Filtration and respiration of the deep living bivalve Acesta excavata (J.C. Fabricius, 1779) (Bivalvia; Limidae). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 334, 122–129 (2006).
Wright, R. T., Coffin, R. B., Ersing, C. P. & Pearson, D. Field and laboratory measurements of bivalve filtration of natural marine bacterioplankton. Limnology and Oceanography 27, 91–98 (1982).
Maier, S. R. et al. Survival under conditions of variable food availability: resource utilization and storage in the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa. Limnology and Oceanography 64, 1651–1671 (2019).
McMurray, S. E., Stubler, A. D., Erwin, P. M., Finelli, C. M. & Pawlik, J. R. A test of the sponge-loop hypothesis for emergent Caribbean reef sponges. Marine Ecology Progress Series 588, 1–14 (2018).
Richter, C., Wunsch, M., Rasheed, M., Kötter, I. & Badran, M. I. Endoscopic exploration of Red Sea coral reefs reveals dense populations of cavity-dwelling sponges. Nature 413, 726–730 (2001).
Ginger, M. L. et al. Organic matter assimilation and selective feeding by holothurians in the deep sea: some observations and comments. Progress in Oceanography 50, 407–421 (2001).
Gergs, R. & Rothhaupt, K.-O. Feeding rates, assimilation efficiencies and growth of two amphipod species on biodeposited material from zebra mussels. Freshwater Biology 53, 2494–2503 (2008).
Welch, H. E. Relationships between assimiliation efficiencies and growth efficiencies for aquatic consumers. Ecology 49, 755–759 (1968).
Hoffmann, F., Rapp, H. T., Zöller, T. & Reitner, J. Growth and regeneration in cultivated fragments of the boreal deep water sponge Geodia barretti Bowerbank, 1858 (Geodiidae, Tetractinellida, Demospongiae). Journal of Biotechnology 100, 109–118 (2003).
Hoffmann, F. et al. Complex nitrogen cycling in the sponge Geodia barretti. Environmental Microbiology 11, 2228–2243 (2009).
Fang, J. K. H. et al. Impact of particulate sediment, bentonite and barite (oil-drilling waste) on net fluxes of oxygen and nitrogen in Arctic-boreal sponges. Environmental Pollution 238, 948–958 (2018).
Allen Brooks, R., Nizinski, M. S., Ross, S. W. & Sulak, K. J. Frequency of sublethal injury in a deepwater ophiuroid, Ophiacantha bidentata, an important component of western Atlantic Lophelia reef communities. Mar Biol 152, 307–314 (2007).
Glud, R. N., Eyre, B. D. & Patten, N. Biogeochemical responses to mass coral spawning at the Great Barrier Reef: effects on respiration and primary production. Limnology and Oceanography 53, 1014–1024 (2008).
Piepenburg, D. & Schmid, M. K. A photographic survey of the epibenthic megafauna of the Arctic Laptev Sea shelf: distribution, abundance, and estimates of biomass and organic carbon demand. Marine Ecology Progress Series 147, 63–75 (1997).
R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL https://www.R-project.org/. (2017).
Ogle, D. H., Wheeler, P. & Dinno, A. FSA: Fisheries Stock Analysis. R package version 0.8.22, https://github.com/droglenc/FSA (2018).