AbstractChina’s Hot Summer and Cold Winter zone, with a 550 million population, accounts for 45% of China’s building energy consumption; as such, building retrofits could offer substantial energy savings. This paper presents results from a dynamic thermal modeling study of a typical urban multistory residential building under three types of air conditioning (A/C) operating schedules. Seven energy-saving retrofit measures (external wall insulation, roof insulation, double-glazing, air infiltration control, window shading, communal staircase design, and energy-efficient A/C) were evaluated, and the retrofit strategy with the highest annual energy savings and lowest thermal discomfort was identified. This retrofit strategy was subsequently evaluated for other flats (apartments) with different orientations and positions in the typical building. The annual space-conditioning energy could be reduced by 59%–68%, depending on the flat location, orientation and A/C operating schedule. The findings were then scaled up to estimate the potential energy savings in the city of Chongqing. More than 320 multistory residential buildings were represented by 12 archetypes. Space-conditioning energy consumption was reduced by up to 58% (18.8 TWh). This work provides evidence of the potential energy savings of city-scale retrofit that could aid China in reducing building energy consumption and achieving net-zero carbon emissions by 2050.Practical ApplicationsIt was possible to explore a wide range of refurbishment options for China’s highly energy-consuming Hot Summer and Cold Winter zone with hot, humid summers and mild, chilly winters using dynamic thermal models. The simulation models developed in this paper revealed that double-glazing with air infiltration control is the most effective retrofit measure for middle-floor flats, but for top-floor flats, roof insulation is the most effective; south-facing flats consume more high energy consumption than north-facing flats. Furthermore, high-rise buildings consume less energy than low-rise buildings per square meter, and one-bedroom flats consume more energy than three-bedroom flats per square meter. This study also demonstrated the procedure to develop thermal comfort evaluation methods, A/C operating schedules, and construction parameters from literature in this climate zone when there were no standards or databases available. Findings offer a tangible, clear retrofit strategy that considers different A/C operating schedules, flat locations, and building archetypes. It can assist decision-making by practitioners and homeowners aiming to upgrade the building stock of this climate zone which covers 3.4 billion m2 with a 550 million population to reduce energy consumption and improve occupant comfort.

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