CIVIL ENGINEERING 365 ALL ABOUT CIVIL ENGINEERING



AbstractArchitects and designers have employed angulated structures for kinetic architectural design due to their formal esthetics, geometry, and light weight. The arrangement of these structures within a regular repetitive (modular) layout forms a kinetic skin. Geometric patterns are repeated in angulated structures based on particular orders as happens in girih patterns in Iranian historical architecture. This similarity forms the base of this study. Given the importance of revitalizing these motifs due to the gap between the modern and traditional architecture and their modernization using up-to-date technologies, the authors propose a process for implementing these patterns on generated lattice structures. This study is organized into two parts to achieve the mentioned goals: in the first part, the effect of changing parameters on the ultimate form of lattice structure is evaluated. In the second part, changes are applied to the structural form according to the patterns through two strategies (i.e., implementing the pattern of girih components on the central opening of the structure and implementing the form of girih components on structural elements), focused on the Islamic girih patterns and the importance of their implementation on the structure. The outcome of this study is kinetic skins containing forms dominantly shapes of Iranian patterns repeated regularly throughout the structure; it represents the beauty and identity of the traditional Iranian architecture and can adapt to changing conditions according to the purposes of sustainable architecture. Finally, a designed structure is modeled and analyzed using the Ansys software in order to investigate the constructability of a full-scale structure and evaluate it under loads in the climate of Tabriz; the results of the analysis indicate that the structure can withstand loads applied in the climate of Tabriz with a thickness of more than 3 mm.Practical ApplicationsEmployed as ornaments in many traditional Iranian and Islamic buildings, the geometric motifs and Islamic girih patterns are esthetically pleasing with good functional strength. These motifs reflect the spirit and identity of traditional architecture and are stuck in people’s minds as patterns from past architecture. The importance of revitalizing these patterns is undeniable due to the identity crisis in contemporary Iranian architecture and the gap between today’s architecture and its brilliant history. As the ornaments have been replaced with functional items in today’s architecture, we attempt to represent these concepts and patterns as architectural functions in this research. Kinetic skins are advanced technologies in the world and have great importance in the functional discussions about sustainability in architecture and reduction of energy consumption. In this research, a positive step is taken towards the research objective, i.e., revitalization of geometric patterns as functions in contemporary architecture in a methodological approach, by selecting a suitable lightweight structure (angulated scissor-like structures) and changing the main structural properties in order to apply the mentioned form on the structure.



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