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AbstractA reduced-order modeling approach is proposed for the linear and nonlinear analysis of automated rack-supported warehouse (ARSW) structures under seismic loads. Steel ARSWs are massive structures that employ traditional racking configurations to support both the stored pallets and the external cladding shell. Capturing all the structural details of an ARSW requires tens or hundreds of thousands of elements, leading to complex numerical models that are analyzed with difficulty even in the linear range and are clearly unsuitable for nonlinear analysis. Thus, despite being prolific in earthquake-prone areas, their true seismic behavior remains largely untested. As a viable compromise between fidelity and low computational cost, we offer instead a reduced-order model that relies on the substitution of the one or more built-up columns (i.e., upright frames) with equivalent Timoshenko beam-column elements and two-node link elements. The resulting model can support both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) elastic and inelastic analyses, offering a powerful tool for the seismic assessment of ARSWs and of complex structures comprising built-up columns in general.



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