AbstractThe construction industry is a significant contributor to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A large proportion of these emissions is given off by non-road equipment used for the construction operation process. There are several models available to estimate the emissions level from the equipment, but these models do not adequately represent real-world environments and work cycles. In addition, these models do not incorporate some crucial characteristics of the equipment, such as equipment type, age, fuel type, and fuel consumption rate. This study aimed to assess the severity of air pollution caused by construction equipment by implementing a real-time simulation model. The study further analyzed the level of emissions compared to their allowable limits and statistical correlation among the pollutants. The motor vehicle emissions simulator (MOVES) was used to simulate the real-time emissions of four criteria pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM10), along with carbon dioxide (CO2) from four different types of non-road construction equipment (two excavators, one forklift, and one mobile crane). The pollutants were selected for the study based on their adverse human health impacts. Data were collected for 60 days from a construction site, excluding the weekends. Analysis of the simulation suggested that the equipment released a notably high concentration of pollutants. Most of these pollutants are strongly correlated to each other. The outcomes of the study will help manufacturers and equipment operators to optimize fuel consumption rates and select environmentally friendly fuel types. Also, the study will provide insight into the severity of non-road-equipment emissions and their negative impacts on GHGs.