AbstractSchmertmann’s method is one of the traditional methods for estimating the settlement of axially loaded footings in sand using cone penetration test (CPT) data. The method was developed for footings on a single, uniform sand layer; it assumes a depth of influence below the footing base within which most of the soil deformations take place and an influence diagram to quantify the influence factor as a function of depth. However, the literature contains limited information on the strain influence diagrams for footings on layered sands, and, as a result, there is no way to accurately account for the effect of sand layering on footing settlement. In this paper, Schmertmann’s approach for calculating the strain influence factor is modified to account for the effect of two sand layers with varying thickness and relative density. Penetration experiments were performed using a half-square model footing (width B=90  mm) placed on the surface of both single and two-layered (dense over medium-dense and medium-dense over dense), air-pluviated silica sand samples prepared inside a half-cylindrical calibration chamber designed for digital image correlation (DIC) analysis. The test results indicate that both the thickness and relative density of the top sand layer (the layer in contact with the footing base) affect the parameters of the strain influence diagram. For dense sand over medium-dense sand, the depth to the peak strain influence factor varies with the thickness of the dense layer; however, when the thickness of the dense layer is 1.5B or greater, the strain influence diagram is similar to that obtained for a single, uniform sand layer. In contrast, for medium-dense sand over dense sand, the peak value of the strain influence factor varies with the thickness of the medium-dense layer up to a value of 1B. Based on the results obtained in this study, new strain influence diagrams are proposed for settlement calculation of square footings on two-layered sand profiles. The proposed method for estimation of footing settlement in layered sand is validated against measured data obtained from a full-scale, instrumented footing load test reported in the literature.

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