AbstractThe effect of an anisotropic stress state on the monotonic behavior of calcareous sand has been rarely investigated, although calcareous sands in the field mainly experience anisotropic consolidation rather than isotropic consolidation. This study provides a laboratory study of the undrained and drained behaviors of dense calcareous sand consolidated anisotropically under various initial mean effective stresses (p0′) and anisotropic stress ratios (Kc), where significant effects of p0′ and Kc on the strength-deformation-degradation characteristics of calcareous sand can be observed. For undrained tests, higher deviatoric stress can be reached under a lower p0′. This could be due to the buildup of negative excess pore-water pressure (u) induced by sample dilatancy. As Kc increased, the negative u accumulated more distinctly, whereas the maximum and minimum u decreased. For drained tests, the maximum deviatoric stress decreased as Kc increased, even though more dilatancy occurred. Undrained loading generally resulted in a higher extent of particle breakage due to the buildup of negative u that increased the mean effective stress. A unique critical-state line was observed in both isotropic and anisotropic samples regardless of the loading condition. However, unlike quartz sand, a pseudosteady state that defined the transition from a dilatancy-dominant nonflow response to breakage-dominant stress degradation was observed in calcareous sand before reaching the critical state. Results also reveal the negligible effect of Kc on the peak-state stress ratio at undrained conditions. However, Kc had significant effect on stress ratio at peak or phase-transformation state in experiments under drained conditions, which can be well represented by using the concept of state dependence. Moreover, Kc had an adverse effect on the initial secant modulus.