AbstractEngineers, building officials and authorities, developers, and other stakeholders have long recognized the significance of structural health monitoring (SHM) in civil infrastructure. With an increasing number of large structures and modern, complex design, the need for high-performance SHM systems is unprecedented. Structural performance assessment, damage detection, and continuous monitoring are among the current SHM applications. However, all SHM applications face challenges and limitations in several aspects. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of such challenges and limitations, and sheds light on some future research needs and directions. The most widely used frameworks and their respective limitations are presented and discussed with a focus on real-life applications pertaining to large structures. Driven by many recent technological advancements, SHM systems are shifting away from conventional, contact-based sensors in favor of more efficient, non-contact-based sensors. This is not intended to be an exhaustive review, but rather a stepping-stone and pathway to a solid understanding of the SHM field and its current intricacies pertaining to large structures. Naturally, some of the highlighted issues can be extended to all types of structures.