AbstractTo explore the treatment performance of a biological aerated filter (BAF) for exogenous pollutants in low-temperature landscape water, a laboratory and pilot system were constructed in urban rivers in the alpine region of northern China, and the key influencing factors such as pH, hydraulic load, air–water ratio, and temperature were studied. The results showed that the operation parameters of the BAF need to be controlled to achieve good nitrogen removal effect. Based on the hazard identification of ammonia nitrogen in landscape water effluent, the critical control points of the BAF process were determined, and corresponding control strategies were formulated. By adjusting operation parameters and other measures, hazards can be identified and overcome with reasonable accuracy. Therefore, the effluent ammonia nitrogen and concentration can be kept within the limits of the law. Double-layer aerated organisms can operate stably at normal temperature, in a transition period, and at low temperature period. The average removal rate of ammonia nitrogen in the three periods can reach 83.29%, 68.53%, and 56.55%, respectively, and the effluent quality can meet the requirements of landscape water during operation.