AbstractA system dynamics (SD) model was developed to identify the best road strategies for network-level maintenance and rehabilitation, considering technical, environmental, and economic grounds. This SD model uses triangulated research methods and data [e.g., interviews, policy analyses, and the VIZIR Pavement Distress Assessment Method (VPDAM)] to determine and allocate maintenance budgets in specific environmental and operational conditions. The system is tested via a case study at the Tunisian Radès Road Port (RRP). Baseline analyses of the simulation show the networked effects of key factors, including increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, rehabilitation deficits, and climate change with reduced average pavement life. The SD model is calibrated and validated using data from RRP rehabilitation operations from 2020 until 2040. The model is coupled with an optimization module that recommends three optimal pavement solutions for the RRP and three pavement management systems (PMS) policies for improved sustainability. The model is based on sound technical principles, enhancing road function, sustainability, and cost savings. These findings contribute to the literature in PMS, SD modeling, sustainable development, and engineering management.

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