Bert, C. & Durante, M. Motion in radiotherapy: Particle therapy. Phys. Med. Biol. 56, R113–R144 (2011).
Knopf, A.-C. et al. Required transition from research to clinical application: Report on the 4D treatment planning workshops 2014 and 2015. Phys. Med. 32, 874–882 (2016).
Riboldi, M., Orecchia, R. & Baroni, G. Real-time tumour tracking in particle therapy: Technological developments and future perspectives. Lancet Oncol. 13, e383–e391 (2012).
Shimizu, S. et al. A proton beam therapy system dedicated to spot-scanning increases accuracy with moving tumors by real-time imaging and gating and reduces equipment size. PLoS ONE 9, e94971 (2014).
Fattori, G. et al. Commissioning of an integrated platform for time-resolved treatment delivery in scanned ion beam therapy by means of optical motion monitoring. Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 13, 517–528 (2014).
Low, D. A. in Advances in Radiation Oncology 60, 41–67 (Springer International Publishing, 2017).
Oborn, B. M. et al. Future of medical physics: Real-time MRI-guided proton therapy. Med. Phys. 44, e77–e90 (2017).
Keall, P. J., Kini, V. R., Vedam, S. S. & Mohan, R. Motion adaptive x-ray therapy: A feasibility study. Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1–10 (2001).
Schweikard, A., Glosser, G., Bodduluri, M., Murphy, M. J. & Adler, J. R. Robotic motion compensation for respiratory movement during radiosurgery. Comput. Aided Surg. 5, 263–277 (2010).
Kamino, Y. et al. Development of a four-dimensional image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled X-ray head. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 66, 271–278 (2006).
Buzurovic, I., Huang, K., Yu, Y. & Podder, T. K. A robotic approach to 4D real-time tumor tracking for radiotherapy. Phys. Med. Biol. 56, 1299–1318 (2011).
Lang, S. et al. Development and evaluation of a prototype tracking system using the treatment couch. Med. Phys. 41, 021720–021727 (2014).
Depuydt, T. et al. Geometric accuracy of a novel gimbals based radiation therapy tumor tracking system. Radiother. Oncol. 98, 365–372 (2011).
Sawant, A. et al. Management of three-dimensional intrafraction motion through real-time DMLC tracking. Med. Phys. 35, 2050–2061 (2008).
Hansen, R. et al. Electromagnetic guided couch and multileaf collimator tracking on a TrueBeam accelerator. Med. Phys. 43, 2387–2398 (2016).
Ehrbar, S. et al. Comparison of multi-leaf collimator tracking and treatment-couch tracking during stereotactic body radiation therapy of prostate cancer. Radiother. Oncol. 125, 445–452 (2017).
Kurz, C. et al. Medical physics challenges in clinical MR-guided radiotherapy. Radiat. Oncol. 15, 93 (2020).
Zhang, Y., Knopf, A., Tanner, C. & Lomax, A. J. Online image guided tumour tracking with scanned proton beams: A comprehensive simulation study. Phys. Med. Biol. 59, 7793–7817 (2014).
Lüchtenborg, R., Saito, N., Durante, M. & Bert, C. Experimental verification of a real-time compensation functionality for dose changes due to target motion in scanned particle therapy. Med. Phys. 38, 5448–5458 (2011).
Actis, O., Mayor, A., Meer, D. & Weber, D. C. Precise beam delivery for proton therapy with dynamic energy modulation. J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 1067, 092002 (2018).
Haberer, T., Becher, W., Schardt, D. & Kraft, G. Magnetic scanning system for heavy ion therapy. Nucl. Inst. Methods Phys. Res. A 330, 296–305 (1993).
Grözinger, S. O., Li, Q., Rietzel, E., Haberer, T. & Kraft, G. 3D online compensation of target motion with scanned particle beam. Radiother. Oncol. 73(Suppl 2), S77–S79 (2004).
Bert, C. et al. Dosimetric precision of an ion beam tracking system. Radiat. Oncol. 5, 61 (2010).
Saito, N. et al. Speed and accuracy of a beam tracking system for treatment of moving targets with scanned ion beams. Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 4849–4862 (2009).
Wan, W. et al. Alternating-gradient canted cosine theta superconducting magnets for future compact proton gantries. Phys. Rev. Spec. Topics Accel. Beams https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.18.103501 (2015).
Gerbershagen, A., Meer, D., Schippers, J. M. & Seidel, M. A novel beam optics concept in a particle therapy gantry utilizing the advantages of superconducting magnets. Z. für Med. Phys. 26, 224–237 (2016).
Gerbershagen, A., Calzolaio, C., Meer, D., Sanfilippo, S. & Schippers, M. The advantages and challenges of superconducting magnets in particle therapy. Supercond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001–083016 (2016).
Schippers, M., Meer, D. & Gerbershagen, A. Particle therapy gantry with an energy degrader and an achromatic final bending system—European Patent Office—EP 3167933 A1. 1–14 (2017).
Bert, C. & Rietzel, E. 4D treatment planning for scanned ion beams. Radiat. Oncol. 2, 24 (2007).
van de Water, S., Kreuger, R., Zenklusen, S., Hug, E. & Lomax, A. J. Tumour tracking with scanned proton beams: Assessing the accuracy and practicalities. Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 6549–6563 (2009).
Zhang, Y., Huth, I., Wegner, M., Weber, D. C. & Lomax, A. J. An evaluation of rescanning technique for liver tumour treatments using a commercial PBS proton therapy system. Radiother. Oncol. 121, 281–287 (2016).
Boye, D., Lomax, T. & Knopf, A. Mapping motion from 4D-MRI to 3D-CT for use in 4D dose calculations: A technical feasibility study. Med. Phys. 40, 061702–061711 (2013).
Shackleford, J. A., Kandasamy, N. & Sharp, G. C. On developing B-spline registration algorithms for multi-core processors. Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 6329–6351 (2010).
Schippers, J. M. et al. The use of protons in cancer therapy at PSI and related instrumentation. J. Phys. 41, 61–71 (2006).
Klimpki, G. et al. The impact of pencil beam scanning techniques on the effectiveness and efficiency of rescanning moving targets. Phys. Med. Biol. 63, 145006–145014 (2018).
Chaudhri, N. et al. Ion-optical studies for a range adaptation method in ion beam therapy using a static wedge degrader combined with magnetic beam deflection. Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 3499–3513 (2010).
Weber, U., Becher, W. & Kraft, G. Depth scanning for a conformal ion beam treatment of deep seated tumours. Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 3627–3641 (2000).
Pedroni, E. et al. The 200-MeV proton therapy project at the Paul Scherrer Institute: Conceptual design and practical realization. Med. Phys. 22, 37–53 (1995).
Titt, U. et al. Adjustment of the lateral and longitudinal size of scanned proton beam spots using a pre-absorber to optimize penumbrae and delivery efficiency. Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 7097–7106 (2010).
Michiels, S. et al. Patient-specific bolus for range shifter air gap reduction in intensity-modulated proton therapy of head-and-neck cancer studied with Monte Carlo based plan optimization. Radiother. Oncol. 128, 161–166 (2018).
Pedroni, E. et al. Experimental characterization and physical modelling of the dose distribution of scanned proton pencil beams. Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 541–561 (2005).
Zenklusen, S. M., Pedroni, E. & Meer, D. A study on repainting strategies for treating moderately moving targets with proton pencil beam scanning at the new gantry 2 at PSI. Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 5103–5121 (2010).
Bernatowicz, K., Lomax, A. J. & Knopf, A. Comparative study of layered and volumetric rescanning for different scanning speeds of proton beam in liver patients. Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 7905–7920 (2013).
Bula, C., Belosi, M. F., Eichin, M., Hrbacek, J. & Meer, D. Dynamic beam current control for improved dose accuracy in PBS proton therapy. Phys. Med. Biol. 64, 175003–175015 (2019).
Eley, J. G., Newhauser, W. D., Lüchtenborg, R., Graeff, C. & Bert, C. 4D optimization of scanned ion beam tracking therapy for moving tumors. Phys. Med. Biol. 59, 3431–3452 (2014).
Graeff, C. Motion mitigation in scanned ion beam therapy through 4D-optimization. Phys. Med. 30, 570–577 (2014).
Wolf, M. E., Anderle, K., Durante, M. & Graeff, C. Robust treatment planning with 4D intensity modulated carbon ion therapy for multiple targets in stage IV non-small cell lung cancer. Phys. Med. Biol. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/aba1a3 (2020).
Palaniappan, P. et al. Deformable image registration of the treatment planning CT with proton radiographies in perspective of adaptive proton therapy. Phys. Med. Biol. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/ab8fc3 (2020).
Landry, G. & Hua, C. H. Current state and future applications of radiological image guidance for particle therapy. Med. Phys. 45, 685–711 (2018).
Hsu, A., Miller, N. R., Evans, P. M., Bamber, J. C. & Webb, S. Feasibility of using ultrasound for real-time tracking during radiotherapy. Med. Phys. 32, 1500–1512 (2005).
Giger, A. T. et al. Liver-ultrasound based motion modelling to estimate 4D dose distributions for lung tumours in scanned proton therapy. Phys. Med. Biol. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/abaa26 (2020).
Wolthaus, J. W. H., Sonke, J. J., van Herk, M. & Damen, E. M. F. Reconstruction of a time-averaged midposition CT scan for radiotherapy planning of lung cancer patients using deformable registrationa. Med. Phys. 35, 3998–4011 (2008).