AbstractAlthough building information modeling (BIM) is believed to have the potential to curb opportunistic behavior, opportunism is observed in some BIM-enabled projects surprisingly often. One possible reason is that, in current practice, the BIM capabilities of project participants are often imbalanced. This study proposes a theoretical framework to understand the impact of BIM capability imbalance on opportunistic behavior and to identify the boundary conditions. Two influential factors, BIM application scope and trust, are considered as moderators. Based on data collected from 296 responses to an electronic questionnaire survey sent to construction companies in China, the effect of BIM capability imbalance on opportunistic behavior was examined from the perspective of the Chinese construction market, and the moderating roles of BIM application scope and trust were explored. The survey results revealed that (1) BIM capability imbalance is positively related to opportunistic behavior (both strong-form and weak-form); (2) BIM application scope can enhance the positive effect of BIM capability imbalance on opportunistic behavior (both strong-form and weak-form); and (3) trust weakens the positive effect of BIM capability imbalance on opportunistic behavior (both strong-form and weak-form). This research contributes to the existing literature on the application of BIM by investigating the effects of BIM capability imbalance on opportunistic behavior and its boundary conditions, which helps to provide a better understanding of the opportunistic risk brought by BIM. This study also enriches the existing literature of information technology application and governance, as it provides empirical evidence in a construction project context for the moderating role of technology application scope and trust. Moreover, this research offers managerial suggestions for parties involved in BIM-enabled construction projects to better govern such projects by choosing partners with balanced BIM capability, determining an appropriate scope for BIM application, and implementing trust mechanisms.