Sathyakumar, S. & Viswanath, S. Observations on food habits of Asiatic black bear in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, India: preliminary evidence on their role in seed germination and dispersal. Ursus 14, 99–103 (2003).
Barua, M. Mobilizing metaphors: the popular use of keystone, flagship and umbrella species concepts. Biodivers. Conserv. 20, 1427–1440 (2011).
Rozylowicz, L., Popescu, V. D., Pătroescu, M. & Chişamera, G. The potential of large carnivores as conservation surrogates in the Romanian Carpathians. Biodivers. Conserv. 20, 561–579 (2011).
Ratnayeke, S. & van Manen, F. T. Assessing sloth bears as surrogates for carnivore conservation in Sri Lanka. Ursus 23, 206–217 (2012).
Can, Ö. E., D’Cruze, N., Garshelis, D. L., Beecham, J. & Macdonald, D. W. Resolving human-bear conflict: a global survey of countries, experts, and key factors. Conserv. Lett. 7, 501–513 (2014).
Di Minin, E. et al. Global priorities for national carnivore conservation under land use change. Sci. Rep. 6, 23814. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep23814 (2016).
Linnell, J. D. C. et al. Border security fencing and wildlife: the end of the transboundary paradigm in Eurasia? PLoS Biol. 14, e1002483. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002483 (2016).
Wolf, C. & Ripple, W. J. Range contractions of the world’s large carnivores. R. Soc. Open Sci. 4, 170052. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.170052 (2017).
Chapron, G. et al. Recovery of large carnivores in Europe’s modern human-dominated landscapes. Science 346, 1517–1519 (2014).
IUCN. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020–1. https://www.iucnredlist.org (2020).
Linnell, J. D. C., Swenson, J. E. & Andersen, R. Conservation of biodiversity in Scandinavian boreal forests: large carnivores as flagships, umbrellas, indicators, or keystones? Biodivers. Conserv. 9, 857–868 (2000).
Fredrikkson, G. Human-sun bear conflicts in East Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. Ursus 16, 130–137 (2005).
Smith, T. S., Herrero, S., Debruyn, T. D. & Wilder, J. M. Efficacy of bear deterrent spray in Alaska. J. Wildl. Manage. 72, 640–645 (2008).
Kobashikawa, S., Trentin, B. & Koike, S. The benefit of wrapping trees in biodegradable material netting to protect against bark stripping by bears extends to surrounding stands. Forest Ecol. Manage. 437, 134–138 (2019).
Woodroffe, R., Frank, L. G., Lindsey, P. A., ole Ranah, S. M. K. & Romañach, S. Livestock husbandry as a tool for carnivore conservation in Africa’s community rangelands: a case-control study. Biodivers. Conserv. 16, 1245–1260 (2007).
Davidson-Nelson, S. J. & Gehring, T. M. Testing fladry as a nonlethal management tool for wolves and coyotes in Michigan. Hum-Wildl. Interact. 4, 87–94 (2010).
Iliopoulos, Y. et al. Tools for co-existence: fladry corrals efficiently repel wild wolves (Canis lupus) from experimental baiting sites. Wildl. Res. 46, 484–498 (2019).
Andelt, W. F. & Hopper, S. N. Livestock guard dogs reduce predation on domestic sheep in Colorado. J. Range Manage. 53, 259–267 (2000).
Papworth, S. K. et al. Bear-proof fences reduce livestock losses in the Tibetan Autonomous Region China. Conserv. Evid. 11, 8–11 (2014).
Otto, T. E. & Roloff, G. J. Black bear exclusion fences to protect mobile apiaries. Hum-Wildl. Interact. 9, 78–86 (2015).
Di Vittorio, M., Costrini, P., Rocco, M., Bragalanti, N. & Borsetta, M. Assessing the efficacy of electric fences to prevent bear damage in Italy. Carnivore Damage Prevent. News 12, 31–37 (2016).
Yamazaki, K. Effects of pruning and brush clearing on debarking within damaged conifer stands by Japanese black bears. Ursus 14, 94–98 (2003).
Zimmermann, B., Wabakken, P. & Dötterer, M. Brown bear-livestock conflicts in a bear conservation zone in Norway: are cattle a good alternative to sheep? Ursus 14, 72–83 (2003).
Gore, M. L., Knuth, B. A., Scherer, C. W. & Curtis, P. D. Evaluating a conservation investment designed to reduce human-wildlife conflict. Conserv. Lett. 1, 136–145 (2008).
Breck, S. W. et al. Domestic calf mortality and producer detection rates in the Mexican wolf recovery area: implications for livestock management and carnivore compensation schemes. Biol. Conserv. 144, 930–936 (2011).
Kavčič, I., Adamič, M., Kaczensky, P., Krofel, M. & Jerina, K. Supplemental feeding with carrion is not reducing brown bear depredations on sheep in Slovenia. Ursus 24, 111–119 (2013).
Alldredge, M. W., Walsh, D. P., Sweanor, L. L., Davies, R. B. & Trujillo, A. Evaluation of translocation of black bears involved in human-bear conflicts in south-central Colorado. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 39, 334–340 (2015).
Bromley, C. & Gese, E. M. Surgical sterilization as a method of reducing coyote predation on domestic sheep. J. Wildl. Manage. 65, 510–519 (2001).
Hawley, J. E. et al. Developing a new shock-collar design for safe and efficient use on wild wolves. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 37, 416–422 (2013).
Hamr, J., Popp, J. N., Brown, D. L. & Mallory, F. F. Problem behaviour of black bears (Ursus americanus) in central Ontario: the effects of hunting and natural food availability. Anim. Biol. 65, 151–161 (2015).
Breck, S. W., Lance, N. & Callahan, P. A shocking device for protection of concentrated food sources from black bears. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 34, 23–26 (2006).
Miller, J. R. B. et al. Effectiveness of contemporary techniques for reducing livestock depredations by large carnivores. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 40, 806–815 (2016).
Treves, A., Krofel, M. & McManus, J. Predator control should not be a shot in the dark. Front. Ecol. Environ. 14, 380–388 (2016).
Eklund, A., López-Bao, J. V., Tourani, M., Chapron, G. & Frank, J. Limited evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to reduce livestock predation by large carnivores. Sci. Rep. 7, 2097. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-02323-w (2017).
Van Eeden, L. M. et al. Managing conflict between large carnivores and livestock. Conserv. Biol. 32, 26–34 (2017).
Khorozyan, I. & Waltert, M. A framework of most effective practices in protecting human assets from predators. Hum. Dimens. Wildl. 24, 380–394 (2019).
Khorozyan, I. & Waltert, M. How long do anti-predator interventions remain effective? Patterns, thresholds and uncertainty. R. Soc. Open Sci. 6, 190826. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.190826 (2019).
Blackwell, B. F. et al. No single solution: application of behavioural principles in mitigating human-wildlife conflict. Anim. Behav. 120, 245–254 (2016).
Blumstein, D. T. Habituation and sensitization: new thoughts about old ideas. Anim. Behav. 120, 255–262 (2016).
Wooldridge, D. R. Polar bear electronic deterrent and detection systems. Int. Conf. Bear Res. Manage. 5, 264–269 (1983).
Beckmann, J. P., Lackey, C. W. & Berger, J. Evaluation of deterrent techniques and dogs to alter behavior of “nuisance” black bears. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 32, 1141–1146 (2004).
Obbard, M. E. et al. Relationships among food availability, harvest, and human-bear conflict at landscape scales in Ontario, Canada. Ursus 25, 98–110 (2014).
Sagør, J. T., Swenson, J. E. & Røskaft, E. Compatibility of brown bear Ursus arctos and free-ranging sheep in Norway. Biol. Conserv. 81, 91–95 (1997).
Morehouse, A. T. & Boyce, M. S. Evaluation of intercept feeding to reduce livestock depredation by grizzly bears. Ursus 28, 66–80 (2017).
Riley, S. J., Aune, K., Mace, R. D. & Madel, M. J. Translocation of nuisance grizzly bears in northwestern Montana. Int. Conf. Bear Res. Manage. 9, 567–573 (1994).
Wooldridge, D. R. & Belton, P. Natural and synthesized aggressive sounds as polar bear repellents. Bears Biol. Manag. 4, 85–91 (1980).
Huygens, O. C. & Hayashi, H. Using electric fences to reduce Asiatic black bear depredation in Nagano Prefecture, central Japan. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27, 959–964 (1999).
Levin, M. Electrical fences against large predators. Carnivore Damage Prevent. News 2, 6–7 (2000).
Clark, J. D. et al. American black bears and bee yard depredation at Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia. Ursus 16, 234–244 (2005).
Seijas, J. M. et al. Effectiveness of brown bear damage protection measures to protect apiaries in the Cantambrian Mountains. Carnivore Damage Prevent. News 12, 26–30 (2016).
Parish, J. A. & Rheinhart, J. D. Calving season selection considerations. Mississippi State University Extension. Publication 2501 (POD-10–15). https://extension.msstate.edu (2015).
Landa, A., Gudvangen, K., Swenson, J. E. & Røskaft, E. Factors associated with wolverine Gulo gulo predation on domestic sheep. J. Appl. Ecol. 36, 963–973 (1999).
Anderson, C. R., Ternent, M. A. & Moody, D. S. Grizzly bear-cattle interactions on two grazing allotments in northwest Wyoming. Ursus 13, 247–256 (2002).
Smith, T. S., Herrero, S., Layton, C. S., Larsen, R. T. & Johnson, K. R. Efficacy of firearms for bear deterrence in Alaska. J. Wildl. Manage. 76, 1021–1027 (2012).
Miller, G. D. Field tests of potential polar bear repellents. Int. Conf. Bear Res. Manage. 7, 383–390 (1987).
Rauer, G., Kaczensky, P. & Knauer, F. Experiences with aversive conditioning of habituated brown bears in Austria and other European countries. Ursus 14, 215–224 (2003).
Knarrum, V. et al. Brown bear predation on domestic sheep in central Norway. Ursus 17, 67–74 (2006).
Leigh, J. Effects of aversive conditioning on behavior of nuisance Louisiana black bears. MSc thesis. (Louisiana State University, 2007).
Mazur, R. L. Does aversive conditioning reduce human-black bear conflict? J. Wildl. Manage. 74, 48–54 (2010).
Meadows, L. E. & Knowlton, F. F. Efficacy of guard llamas to reduce canine predation on domestic sheep. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 28, 614–622 (2000).
Hansen, I. & Smith, M. E. Livestock-guarding dogs in Norway. Part II: different working regimes. J. Range Manage. 52, 312–316 (1999).
Barrett, M. A., Telesco, D. J., Barrett, S. E., Widness, K. M. & Leone, E. H. Testing bear-resistant trash cans in residential areas of Florida. Southeast. Nat. 13, 26–39 (2014).
Johnson, H. E., Lewis, D. L., Lischka, S. A. & Breck, S. W. Assessing ecological and social outcomes of a bear-proofing experiment. J. Wildl. Manage. 82, 1102–1114 (2018).
Ziegltrum, G. J. Efficacy of black bear supplemental feeding to reduce conifer damage in western Washington. J. Wildl. Manage. 68, 470–474 (2004).
Stringham, S. F. & Bryant, A. Distance-dependent effectiveness of diversionary bear bait sites. Hum-Wildl. Interact. 9, 229–235 (2015).
Landriault, L. J., Brown, G. S., Hamr, J. & Mallory, F. F. Age, sex and relocation distance as predictors of return for relocated nuisance black bears Ursus americanus in Ontario, Canada. Wildl. Biol. 15, 155–164 (2009).
Treves, A., Kapp, K. J. & MacFarland, D. M. American black bear nuisance complaints and hunter take. Ursus 21, 30–42 (2010).
Lennox, R. J., Gallagher, A. J., Ritchie, E. G. & Cooke, S. J. Evaluating the efficacy of predator removal in a conflict-prone world. Biol. Conserv. 224, 277–289 (2018).
Goldstein, I. et al. Andean bear-livestock conflicts: a review. Ursus 17, 8–15 (2006).
Debata, S., Swain, K. K., Sahu, H. K. & Palei, H. S. Human-sloth bear conflict in a human-dominated landscape of northern Odisha, India. Ursus 27, 90–98 (2016).
Herrero, S. & Higgins, A. Field use of capsicum spray as a bear deterrent. Ursus 10, 533–537 (1998).
Andelt, W. F. Relative effectiveness of guarding-dog breeds to deter predation on domestic sheep in Colorado. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27, 706–714 (1999).
Nakagawa, S. & Cuthill, I. C. Effect size, confidence interval and statistical significance: a practical guide for biologists. Biol. Rev. 82, 591–605 (2007).