AbstractAs-built bridge piers are likely to be subjected to vehicular collisions, causing severe damage to the bridge substructure and even resulting in the collapse of the entire bridge. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) strengthening in enhancing the vehicular impact resistance of as-built bridge piers. A typical local, refined finite-element (FE) model of a simply supported two-span, double-column, reinforced-concrete (RC) bridge was established. The adopted material constitutive models and the FE analytical approaches were then validated through reduced vehicle model lateral impact tests on bare and carbon fiber–reinforced polymer (CFRP)-strengthened RC columns. The effective schemes for FRP strengthening of bridge piers against vehicle impact are discussed from the aspects of fiber orientation, number of layers, and strengthened height as well as by FRP type. Based on the FRP strengthening scheme, 48 vehicle–bridge collision scenarios were designed to evaluate the collapse of bridges with/without FRP-strengthened piers. It was found that (1) external FRP wrapping can effectively enhance vehicular impact-resistance of as-built bridge piers (e.g., reducing the degree of damage and deformation of the impacted pier); (2) for typical bridge piers, the effective strengthening scheme comprised a fiber orientation of 0° in reference to the circumferential direction, a 3-m strengthened height, and four-layer CFRP wrapping; (3) compared with bare bridge piers, FRP-strengthened piers could improve the vehicular impact-resistant safety redundancy of as-built bridges and, to some extent, avoid bridge collapses under truck collisions at high speed. Furthermore, through introducing the dynamic increase factors of concrete strength, reinforcement rebars, and FRP, and considering the nonuniform distributions of the strain rate of FRP-strengthened bridge piers caused by vehicular collision, the dynamic shear capacity of strengthened bridge pier was formulated.