AbstractGiven the background of rural revitalization, it is considered crucial for solving various village problems caused by fast urbanization, including the underuse of rural land resources and inappropriate spatial construction. The essential causes behind these problems come from the social-ecological system vulnerability (SESV) of villages. This paper aims to propose an evaluation index system for rural SESV that focuses on the rural planning strategies for local decision makers with regard to the vulnerability principal components in the Northeast China Plain. Taking 30 villages as evaluation samples, this paper constructed an SESV index and established a model for measuring the vulnerability degrees. Further, principal component analysis was used to analyze the primary principal components of rural SESV dimensions, exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity, helping in SESV-type classification and efficient planning strategies and policies correspondingly. Results obtained revealed that 56.7% of the sample villages have high or serious vulnerability, which is mainly affected by the impact of land use changes and population changes. Thirty villages were divided into three SESV types, with a ratio of 11:18:5. This research can provide a decision-making basis to reduce rural SESV and improve the human settlement planning.