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AbstractA warping-inclusive kinematic coupling method to be used in finite-element analysis of members featuring wide-flange cross sections is proposed in this paper. This coupling method is used in mixed-dimension macromodels that combine continuum and beam-column elements to reduce the computational cost of purely continuum finite-element models. The proposed coupling method, utilizing either linear or nonlinear constraint equations, is implemented and validated in a commercial finite-element software; the source code is made publicly available. Case studies indicate that including warping in the coupling formulation is critical for components that may experience coupled local and lateral-torsional buckling. Also highlighted is the potential of macromodels to reduce the total degrees of freedom by up-to about 60%, and computational memory use by up to around 80%, while retaining solution fidelity for beam, column, and panel zone components in steel moment-resting frames. The case studies show that the linear constraint equation formulation may not be suitable for all problems; however, it may still yield acceptable results as long as the level of twisting is insignificant and lateral-torsional buckling is not critical.



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